How to retrieve a Twitter user timeline using the Twitter API version 1.1 in PHP

There are various PHP Twitter libraries which each have their advantages and disadvantages, however sometimes it is easier to code it yourself rather than learning and working within the limitations of an existing library.

The first step is to create a new Twitter application at (there are various tutorials available online on how to do this). Once you have created your application, your consumer key, consumer secret, access token and access token secret can be used in the below code.

$token = 'YOUR TOKEN';
$token_secret = 'TOKEN SECRET';
$consumer_key = 'YOUR KEY';
$consumer_secret = 'KEY SECRET';
$host = '';
$method = 'GET';
$path = '/1.1/statuses/user_timeline.json'; // api call path
$query = array( // query parameters
    'screen_name' => 'twitterapi',
    'count' => '2'
$oauth = array(
    'oauth_consumer_key' => $consumer_key,
    'oauth_token' => $token,
    'oauth_nonce' => (string)mt_rand(), // a stronger nonce is recommended
    'oauth_timestamp' => time(),
    'oauth_signature_method' => 'HMAC-SHA1',
    'oauth_version' => '1.0'
$oauth = array_map("rawurlencode", $oauth); // must be encoded before sorting
$query = array_map("rawurlencode", $query);
$arr = array_merge($oauth, $query); // combine the values THEN sort
asort($arr); // secondary sort (value)
ksort($arr); // primary sort (key)
// http_build_query automatically encodes, but our parameters
// are already encoded, and must be by this point, so we undo
// the encoding step
$querystring = urldecode(http_build_query($arr, '', '&'));
$url = "https://$host$path";
// mash everything together for the text to hash
$base_string = $method."&".rawurlencode($url)."&".rawurlencode($querystring);
// same with the key
$key = rawurlencode($consumer_secret)."&".rawurlencode($token_secret);
// generate the hash
$signature = rawurlencode(base64_encode(hash_hmac('sha1', $base_string, $key, true)));
// this time we're using a normal GET query, and we're only encoding the query params
// (without the oauth params)
$url .= "?".http_build_query($query);
$oauth['oauth_signature'] = $signature; // don't want to abandon all that work!
ksort($oauth); // probably not necessary, but twitter's demo does it
// also not necessary, but twitter's demo does this too
function add_quotes($str) { return '"'.$str.'"'; }
$oauth = array_map("add_quotes", $oauth);
// this is the full value of the Authorization line
$auth = "OAuth " . urldecode(http_build_query($oauth, '', ', '));
// if you're doing post, you need to skip the GET building above
// and instead supply query parameters to CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS
$options = array( CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER => array("Authorization: $auth"),
                  //CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS => $postfields,
                  CURLOPT_HEADER => false,
                  CURLOPT_URL => $url,
                  CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER => true,
                  CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER => false);
// do our business
$feed = curl_init();
curl_setopt_array($feed, $options);
$json = curl_exec($feed);
$twitter_data = json_decode($json);